Turkmenistan also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991 it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR). Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the southeast Iran to the south and southwest Uzbekistan to the east and northeast Kazakhstan to the north and northwest and the Caspian Sea to the west.